Electric Vehicles Components and Functions

Electric Vehicles: Introduction

Powered by an electric motor and a rechargeable battery, Electric Vehicles are environmentally friendly. In response to the escalating fuel crisis, electric vehicles are becoming more popular than ever. Electric vehicles, as we all know, are very efficient and use less energy, making them ecologically beneficial vehicles. Another reason for the popularity of electric vehicles is environmental protection and pleasant driving experience.

Function of Electric Vehicle

There is a big difference between an electric automobile and a car with an internal combustion engine. There are numerous differences between these two groups, from the basic structure and functioning principles to the techniques of usage and maintenance.

Reference: Guide to the Electric Car

Main Components of Electric Vehicle

The primary components in Electric Vehicle

  • Motor
  • Power Inverter
  • Battery
  • Electric Traction Motor
  • Controller
  • Charger

What is a Motor?

In order to propel the vehicle, the electric motor converts electrical power into kinetic energy. Over a motor, it has numerous advantages: As a first step, car noise and vibration are decreasing .In addition, the power system of electric vehicles is smaller than the engine, so there is enough extra space for efficient vehicle design, such as more cab space or storage space.

What is a Power Inverter?

If you have a motor, you will need an inverter, which converts DC from the battery into alternating current (AC). Alternating energy is converted into direct current by electric car inverters, which is used in the process to charge the battery. One of the types of inverters used in some electric automobiles is called a two-way inverter.

What is Battery?

An internal combustion engine’s fuel tank is comparable to a battery’s electrical energy storage capacity. The maximum driving distance of an electric automobile is determined on the battery’s capacity.

You may charge the battery of an electric car with a normal electrical grid or a specialized power plant’s power grid. Lithium-ion batteries are not the only option for electric automobiles today.

What is an Electric Traction Motor?

We have a motor that turns the gearbox and wheels since the controller gets its power from the traction battery. Certain hybrid electric automobiles include a generator motor installed on the vehicle that performs the propulsion and regeneration functions. It is common to use brushless DC motors for much of the work.

What is a Controller?

Battery and inverter power an electric motor.The controller regulates the electric energy. The vehicle pedal is the controller’s primary input (set by the driver). Speed and frequency are both determined by pedal setting.

This device regulates the speed of the traction motor and the torque it produces. As a result, how well the electric vehicle operates depends on this component.

What is a Charger?

The charger is a device that charges batteries. Electricity for the charger comes from a grid or solar power plant. In the battery, the alternating electricity is transformed to direct current and then stored.

There are two types of chargers for electric vehicles:

  • First, the charger is located and installed in the car, and it is called an on-board charger
  • Second, the charger is instead inside the car, and it is called an off-board charger

How does Electric Car Function?

  1. With a push of the car’s pedal, the controller draws electrical power from the battery and inverter and adjusts it accordingly.
  2. Next, the inverter comes into work as it transfers a certain amount of electrical energy to the motor
  3. Motors use electricity to create mechanical energy (rotation)
  4. The spinning of the motor rotor causes the gearbox to move.
  5. The wheels move as a result.

Types of Batteries used in Electric Automobiles?

Lithium-ion battery

As a result of its superior performance and range, the lithium-ion battery has become a popular new battery technology. On the downside, it’s a bit more expensive than the others as well. In comparison to lead acid and metallic nickel, lithium-ion batteries are much lighter in weight. These batteries are used in digital cameras, as well as in cell phones and digital cameras.

Lead Acid Battery

This is the most common battery technology. Aside from that, it’s the cheapest battery technology available. This has the benefit of being 97% recyclable.

Nikal Metal Hydride Battery

These batteries have higher performance and better performance than lead-acid batteries, however they are substantially more expensive than lead-acid batteries.


Now when you look at upcoming cars in India, you will know how to differentiate between a normal car and an electric car. In the article, there was mention of electric car components and their function.

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